What follows is a table that offers a nuanced approach to racism. In this case, the point is that there are several combinations of racism along the following dimensions: individual/institutional and overt/covert. Each has harmful consequences for those affected. These sorts off tables can be very important for understanding each other's blind spots as well as those of our social institutions. I suspect that a lot of the friction encountered in confronting racism comes from covert unintentional acts at either the individual or institutional level. Getting those involved to see it and to take steps to reform is likely to be a long-term work in progress.
This diagram comes from a textbook by Ponterotto, Utsey, and Pedersen (2006).